The situation of COVID vaccine candidates is contantly changing. This map is a living document that is under constant revision.
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Recent Major Updates:
Novartis gene therapy subsidiary (Avexis) to manufacture Harvard candidate vaccine (28 May)
MSD (Merck) acquires Themis (Austria), makes deal with IAVI (26 May)
Novavax buys former Baxter facility in Czech Republic from India's Serum Institute (27 May)
Version 1.09 - 29 May 2020
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Compiled and maintained by Edward Hammond on behalf of Third World Network.
Contract Manufacturing Layer
This layer depicts vaccine and biological drug manufacturing facilities that have been identified that belong to contract manufactuing organizations (CMOs). These companies generally do not own vaccines themselves but rather provide development and manufacturing services to others. Where known, the capacity of these facilities is indicated. Production lines with vessels over 2000 liters will typically (but not always) utilize 'traditional' manufacturing in stainless steel tanks. Many production lines of 2000 liters or less utilize single use bioreactors (in essence, very fancy plastic bags) that are replaced before each run.
Not every facility is suitable for production of every vaccine. There are a very wide variety of candidate vaccines produced using a variety of techniques. But some of these techniques are similar and many facilities - especially CMOs - are built to be flexible.
Other Manufacturing Layer
This layer depicts facilities that might be used to produce COVID-19 vaccine whose current capability is uncertain. For example, facilities that are under construction. Or large biological drug facilities that currently do not produce vaccines but whose output might be redirected to COVID vaccines.
Finish, Fill Layer
This layer, which is less complete than others, depicts important finish/fill facilities that are not co-located with major biological manufacturing capacity. These facilities have aseptic lines where bulk vaccine product can be packaged, for example into vials and/or syringes. Some manufacturing facilities already have this capacity on location, but others do not.
Vaccine Company Headquarter Layer
This layer depicts the location of the head office of vaccine companies (and institutes or universities) that have announced they have candidate COVID-19 vaccines. Universities that have announced candidates but who have not identified commercial partners are omitted. Vaccine companies that are collaborating with others on a candidate are linked by a line (see "Vaccine Relationships Layer" below). This layer visually weights all announced candidate vaccines equally. In the future, we will attempt to visually differentiate those that are advancing more quickly.
Scale Up and Supply Layer
This layer, which is less complete, depicts some of the potentially important companies in scaling up COVID vaccine production and keeping production sites supplied. It includes makers of single use bioreactors and CMOs specilized in cell bank and process development (but which themselves do not appear to be able to produce on a significant scale).
Manufacturer Facilities Layer
This layer depicts individual biopharmaceutical production sites belonging to companies that have announced their own candidate vaccine. In many cases, these facilites are presently engaged in other manufacturing - e.g. monoclonal antibodies or other vaccines - but which might be directed in whole or part to COVID vaccine.
Vaccine Relationships Layer
This layer consists of the various lines linking manufacturers and manufacturers to CMOs. It depicts collaborations specifically in relation to development and production of COVID-19 candidate vaccines.
Vaxmap visually represents efforts to develop COVID-19 vaccines on a world map. Based on open sources, VaxMap shows the companies with candidate vaccines and the locations of potential vaccine production, both at company-owned facilities and contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs).
VaxMap shows the vastly unequal geographic distribution of manufacturing capacity for COVID vaccines and the deals that are being struck between vaccine companies and other manufacturers. It also shows key facilities and companies that can support vaccine production, including single use bioreactor makers and the finish / fill facilities that pack vaccines into syringes, vials, and other forms for distribution.
VaxMap is intended to inform discussions about timely, equitable, and affordable access to vaccines for all people in the world by creating and encouraging transparency around manufacturing capacities and constraints for COVID-19 vaccines.
VaxMap will continually evolve as the fast-moving COVID vaccine situation changes and invites verifiable crowdsourced information. Additions, suggestions, and corrections are welcomed.
Version 1.09 - 29 May 2020 - Added Amgen and Merck manufacturing facilities, Valneva (small French vaccine maker), Pierre Fabre biologics plant reportedly for sale near Geneva
Version 1.08 - 28 May 2020 - Added Novartis' deal with Harvard to produce candidate vaccine. Added Servier, Gidy and Viralgen, San Sebastian.
Version 1.07 - 27 May 2020 - Added MSD (Merck) deals with IAVI and Themis. Added Novavax purchase of Czech plant from Serum Institute (ex Baxter facility). To do: Add Merck production sites.
Version 1.06 - 20 May 2020 - Added Baharat Biotech, Lonza production details, Trilink, British American Tobacco, other minor edits.
Version 1.05 - 11 May 2020 - Numerous additions focused on facilities beloning to larger manufacturers.
Version 1.04 - 7 May 2020 - Several new additions. Still to do: Amgen, europfins, SK Biopharma, Il Yang. Some facilities not listed and why: GPO Thailand (tiny capacity may be egg based), Institute Pasteur Dakar (small capacity, critical single focus on yellow fever vaccine), FluArt Hungary (no plan, no data on capability), Torlak Serbia (tiny capacity <1m/yr), Changchun Biotech China (severe regulatory / quality issues), BiondVax (small, single program on universal flu vaccine candidate)
Version 1.03 - 7 May 2020 - Numerous CMOs added. Added license. To do: Amgen (still), Eurofins
Version 1.02 - 6 May 2020 - Added CMOs: Aji Biopharma (Yokkaido, San Diego), Kemwell (Bengalaru), Biovian (Turku), Cytovance (Oklahoma City)
Version 1.01 - 4 May 2020 - Added Astra Zeneca facilities. Added Moderna - Lonza deal. Novartis Longmont. To do: Amgen
Version 1.00 - 3 May 2020