The situation of COVID vaccine candidates is contantly changing. This map is a living document that is under constant revision.
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Version 1.40 - 19 February 2021
*** Click the upper left box to reveal the legend, then turn layers on and off with the red box in the title of each.
*** In dense areas, be sure to zoom in to see all facilities.
Compiled and maintained by Edward Hammond on behalf of Third World Network.
These layers depict the location of the head office of vaccine companies (and institutes or universities) that have announced they have candidate COVID-19 vaccines. Candidate vaccines that have entered Phase II trials are in a separate layer and colored a brighter red. Universities that have announced candidates but who have not identified commercial partners are omitted. To avoid overload, not every announced vaccine candidate is included and candidates that either show strong progress, or don't, may be added or removed. Vaccine companies that are collaborating with others on a candidate are linked by a line (see "Vaccine Relationships Layer" below).
Monoclonal Antibody Candidates Layer
This layer depicts the location of the head offices of companies (and institutes or universities) that have announced they have candidate monoclonal antibody (MAB) therapies targeting COVID-19. This layer does not include polyclonal COVID immune therapies. It also does not include monoclonal antibodies developed for other indications that are used against cytokine storm or other COVID symptoms. Much of the potential manufacturing base for vaccines is also capable of producing COVID MABs.
Contract Manufacturing Layer
This layer depicts vaccine and biological drug manufacturing facilities that have been identified that belong to contract manufactuing organizations (CMOs). These companies typically do not own vaccines themselves but rather provide development and manufacturing services to others, although a number of companies both manufacture their own products and offer CMO services to others. Where known, the capacity of these facilities is indicated. Production lines with vessels over 2000 liters will typically (but not always) utilize 'traditional' manufacturing in stainless steel tanks. Many production lines of 2000 liters or less utilize single use bioreactors (in essence, very fancy plastic bags) that are replaced before each run.
Not every facility is suitable for production of every vaccine. There are a very wide variety of candidate vaccines produced using a variety of techniques. But some of these techniques are similar and many facilities - especially CMOs - are built to be flexible.
Other Manufacturing Layer
This layer depicts facilities that might be used to produce COVID-19 vaccine whose current capability is uncertain. For example, facilities that are under construction. Or large biological drug facilities that currently do not produce vaccines but whose output might be redirected to COVID vaccines.
Finish, Fill Layer
This layer, which is less complete than others, depicts important finish/fill facilities that are not co-located with major biological manufacturing capacity. These facilities have aseptic lines where bulk vaccine product can be packaged, for example into vials and/or syringes. Some manufacturing facilities already have this capacity on location, but others do not.
Scale Up and Supply Layer
This layer, which is less complete, depicts some of the potentially important companies in scaling up COVID vaccine production and keeping production sites supplied. It includes makers of single use bioreactors and CMOs specilized in cell bank and process development (but which themselves do not appear to be able to produce on a significant scale).
Manufacturer Facilities Layer
This layer depicts individual biopharmaceutical production sites belonging to companies that have announced their own candidate vaccine. In many cases, these facilites are presently engaged in other manufacturing - e.g. monoclonal antibodies or other vaccines - but which might be directed in whole or part to COVID vaccine.
Vaccine Relationships Layer
This layer consists of the various lines linking vaccine companies and companies to CMOs. It depicts collaborations specifically in relation to development and production of COVID-19 candidate vaccines.
Antibodies Relationships Layer
This layer consists of the various lines linking antibody companies and antibody companies to CMOs. It depicts collaborations specifically in relation to development and production of COVID-19 candidate MABs.
Vaxmap visually represents efforts to develop COVID-19 vaccines on a world map. Based on open sources, VaxMap shows the companies with candidate vaccines and the locations of potential vaccine production, both at company-owned facilities and contract manufacturing organizations (CMOs).
VaxMap shows the vastly unequal geographic distribution of manufacturing capacity for COVID vaccines and the deals that are being struck between vaccine companies and other manufacturers. It also shows key facilities and companies that can support vaccine production, including single use bioreactor makers and the finish / fill facilities that pack vaccines into syringes, vials, and other forms for distribution.
VaxMap is intended to inform discussions about timely, equitable, and affordable access to vaccines for all people in the world by creating and encouraging transparency around manufacturing capacities and constraints for COVID-19 vaccines.
VaxMap will continually evolve as the fast-moving COVID vaccine situation changes and invites verifiable crowdsourced information. Additions, suggestions, and corrections are welcomed.
Version 1.40 - 19 February - Added Fareva, which inexplicably escaped addition until now (making Curevac). HT to HR.
Version 1.39 - 12 February - With monoclonal antibody uncertainty, that layer now off by default. In the interest of clarity, the very incomplete finish/fill layer is also now off by default. Numerous updates to existing entries. A reminder: Layers may be turned on and off after clicking in the box at upper left of the map.
Version 1.38 - 10 February - Numerous manufacturing relationship updates, added Coviran and Adimmune candidates.
Version 1.37 - 27 January - Numerous text box updates on trial stages and candidate names. Any reports of abandoned candidates appreciated!
Version 1.36 - 25 January - Deleted discontinued Merck candidate. Added Medigen Vaccine Biologics (Taiwan) candidate (Phase 2).
Version 1.35 - 5 January - Numerous updates, creation of licensed vaccine layer, added Chinese Academy of Science candidate, Advaccine / Inovio deal, others.
Version 1.34 - 7 December - Belated update. Includes changes to: Sinovac (CN), Aspen Pharma (ZA), Inovio (US), Eurogentec (BE/JP), Wockhardt (UK), Curevac (AT), Wacker (NL), Hetero (IN), GL Rapha (KR), Recipharm (FR)
Verson 1.33 - 7 October - Added Kocek Pharma (Turkey)
Version 1.32 - 22 September - Added Vector (Novosibirsk) candidate.
Verson 1.31 - 18 September 2020 - Added Novavax - Serum Institute deal, BioNTech purchase of Marbug facility, Wockhardt UK CMO, Novavax - Zendal (Biofabri).
Version 1.3 - 14 September 2020 - Added Inovio - Thermo Fischer (Patheon) deal.
Version 1.29 - 31 August 2020 - Added Beigene deal with Singlomics for MABs
Version 1.28 - 19 August 2020 - Added Roche-Regneron MAB deal, added VBI Vaccines
Version 1.27 - 10 August 2020 - Added Shenzen Kangtai, smaller MAB manufacturers Libbs (Brazil) and mAbxience (Spain/Argentina),updates to Gamalei Institute and Bio-Manguinhos (Fiocruz).
Version 1.26 - 7 August 2020 - Added JSK Pharma (Japan), added Novavax - Takeda deal
Version 1.25 - 2 August 2020 - Numerous smaller edits. Added Duopharma and Pharmaniago, finish/fill companies selected by Malaysian government. Added Affinity Bio (Australia). Numerous updates to Lilly, Lonza (New Hampshire), Heat Biologics, and others.
Version 1.24 - 22 July 2020 - Added deal for SK Bioscience (South Korea) to produce Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine, PT Biofarma (Indonesia) to manufacture Sinovac vaccine
Version 1.23 - 21 July 2020 - Added deal for R-Pharma (Russia) to produce AstraZeneca candidate
Version 1.22 - 16 July 2020 - Added SK Bioscience (South Korea).
Version 1.21 - 10 July 2020 - The maintainer has been remiss in updating this version history. Numerous small changes over the last two weeks now agglomerated into 1.21. Will be better about this in the future.
Version 1.2 - 19 June 2020 - Addition of monoclonal antibody candidates.
Version 1.14 - 17 June 2020 - Added Gamalei Institute (Russia) and Yishing Biopharma (China) candidate vaccines.
Version 1.13 - 16 June 2020 - Added PT Biopharma / Sinovac collaboration, New Sanofi facility for Lyon.
Verson 1.12 - 11 June 2020 - Added AstraZeneca contract to Emergent to produce Oxford vaccine in Baltimore. Began design overhaul to improve usability.
Version 1.11 - 5 June 2020 - Added ACG Biologis purchase of Boulder, CO facility, Astra Zeneca - Serum Insitute deal, Univ Queensland - CSL deal.
Version 1.1 - 2 June 2020 - Added NantWorks, a stealth adeno-vectored candidate developer that has received support from the US "Operation Warp Speed"
Version 1.09 - 29 May 2020 - Added Amgen and Merck manufacturing facilities, Valneva (small French vaccine maker), Pierre Fabre biologics plant reportedly for sale near Geneva
Version 1.08 - 28 May 2020 - Added Novartis' deal with Harvard to produce candidate vaccine. Added Servier, Gidy and Viralgen, San Sebastian.
Version 1.07 - 27 May 2020 - Added MSD (Merck) deals with IAVI and Themis. Added Novavax purchase of Czech plant from Serum Institute (ex Baxter facility). To do: Add Merck production sites.
Version 1.06 - 20 May 2020 - Added Baharat Biotech, Lonza production details, Trilink, British American Tobacco, other minor edits.
Version 1.05 - 11 May 2020 - Numerous additions focused on facilities beloning to larger manufacturers.
Version 1.04 - 7 May 2020 - Several new additions. Still to do: Amgen, europfins, SK Biopharma, Il Yang. Some facilities not listed and why: GPO Thailand (tiny capacity may be egg based), Institute Pasteur Dakar (small capacity, critical single focus on yellow fever vaccine), FluArt Hungary (no plan, no data on capability), Torlak Serbia (tiny capacity <1m/yr), Changchun Biotech China (severe regulatory / quality issues), BiondVax (small, single program on universal flu vaccine candidate)
Version 1.03 - 7 May 2020 - Numerous CMOs added. Added license. To do: Amgen (still), Eurofins
Version 1.02 - 6 May 2020 - Added CMOs: Aji Biopharma (Yokkaido, San Diego), Kemwell (Bengalaru), Biovian (Turku), Cytovance (Oklahoma City)
Version 1.01 - 4 May 2020 - Added Astra Zeneca facilities. Added Moderna - Lonza deal. Novartis Longmont. To do: Amgen
Version 1.00 - 3 May 2020